Occupational stress was assessed using the Occupational Stress Inventory-revised edition (OSI-R) written by Osipow19 and adapted by Li. The scale consists of the following three dimensions: the Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) (60 items), the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) (40 items) and the Personal Resources Questionnaire (PRQ) (40 items).The respondent scores the frequency of a particular behaviour on a Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (often).20 For the ORQ and PSQ, a higher score indicates more nervousness. A higher score for the PRQ indicates that the respondent has a stronger ability to cope with tension. In each dimension, we divided the participants into three parts according to tertiles of their scores as low, moderate and high score groups. The following were the cut-off points for the OSI-R subscales-ORQ: low<120, moderate 120–160, high >160; PSQ and PRQ: low<92, moderate 92–100, high >100. In our sample, the Cronbach’s ? coefficients for the ORQ, PSQ and PRQ were 0.88 erotische Dating-Seiten fÃ¼r Erwachsene, 0.86 and 0.91, respectively.
Job burnout was measured by the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), which consisted of 19 test items divided into three dimensions:5 , 7 , 21 7 items of EE, 5 items of DEP and 7 items of reduced sense of PA. The first dimension (EE) describes feelings in a general sense, DEP is associated with behaviour and PA involves cognition and feelings affecting self-efficacy.22 Some item statements are reversed. Items were scored on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The scores for each dimension were computed separately. Scores of EE and DEP >66.7%, together with PA scores <33.3%, were used to code low and high scores. A higher burnout level is predicted by higher scores for the EE and DEP subscales and by lower scores for the PA scale. To better describe burnout states and to more readily identify burnout-associated risk factors, a weighted burnout score was introduced. 4?EE+0.3?DEP+0.3?PA. The burnout score was classified into three categories: no burnout (total score from 1 to 2.49), mild burnout (2.50–4.49) and severe burnout (4.50–7). Rural-to-urban migrant workers with mild or severe burnout were defined as ‘burnout cases'.23 The MBI-HSS has previously demonstrated that it has high validity and reliability among Chinese medical professionals.24 In our current study, the Cronbach's ? for EE, DEP and PA was 0.70, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively.
A survey composed of group variables such as for instance ages, intercourse, relationship updates, knowledge peak, conduct community in addition to smoking, consuming and you will physical activity and you will occupations-associated investigation instance sorts of office and you may many years of habit was created for the purpose of the study.
The data were analysed using SPSS for Windows V.19.0 (SPSS, USA). All statistical tests were two-sided, and a p value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The independent-sample t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of the MBI-HSS scores in the demographics, behaviour customs and job-related data. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to examine the correlations among the study variables. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between occupational stress and MBI-HSS scores. In the first step of the hierarchical linear regression analyses, the control variables were added into the model. According to the independent-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis, variations such as age, gender, marital status, educational level, smoking, drinking, physical training, hobbies, type of workplace, years of practice, working hours per day and dull or repetitive work were included in the model as potential confounders. In the second step, dimensions of OIS-R were added. Variances of MBI-HSS scores explained by occupational stress were examined by ?R 2 . A non-conditional logistic regression model was applied to estimate the degree of association between each dimension of occupational stress and the MBI-HSS. The univariate model was first used to identify the potential risk factors, and then the multivariable model was applied to confirm the identified associations.